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Understanding Bronchial Asthma: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment and Homeopathic Remedy

Understanding Bronchial Asthma: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment and Homeopathic Remedy

Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways characterized by episodes of wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and difficulty breathing. These symptoms occur due to the narrowing of the airways, which makes it difficult for air to move in and out of the lungs. The narrowing is caused by a combination of inflammation, bronchospasm, and excess mucus production.

Bronchial asthma

Causes of Bronchial Asthma

The causes of bronchial asthma are complex and multifactorial, involving both genetic and environmental factors.

Genetic factors play a role in the development of asthma. People with a family history of asthma are more likely to develop the condition themselves. This is because asthma is a hereditary condition that is passed down through genes. Specific genetic variations have been identified that are associated with an increased risk of developing asthma.

Environmental factors can also trigger or exacerbate asthma. Exposure to allergens such as pollen, dust mites, animal dander, and mold can trigger an allergic reaction that leads to inflammation and constriction of the airways. Irritants such as tobacco smoke, air pollution, and strong odors can also trigger asthma symptoms. Respiratory infections, such as the common cold or flu, can also cause asthma symptoms to worsen.

In addition to these triggers, certain lifestyle factors can increase the risk of developing asthma or exacerbating existing symptoms. Obesity, lack of physical activity, and a diet high in processed foods and low in fresh fruits and vegetables have been associated with an increased risk of asthma.

Finally, certain occupational exposures can also cause or exacerbate asthma symptoms. Workers in industries such as farming, woodworking, and chemical manufacturing may be exposed to substances that can trigger asthma symptoms.

Pathophysiology of Bronchial Asthma

Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways that involves a complex interplay between various cell types and chemical mediators.

In asthma, exposure to allergens or irritants triggers an inflammatory response in the airways. This causes the airway walls to become thickened and inflamed, leading to narrowing of the airways and decreased airflow. The inflammation also causes the airway smooth muscle to constrict, further narrowing the airways and leading to the characteristic symptoms of asthma, such as wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath.

Several types of immune cells are involved in the inflammatory response in asthma, including eosinophils, mast cells, T lymphocytes, and macrophages. These cells release chemical mediators such as histamine, leukotrienes, and cytokines, which contribute to airway inflammation and constriction.

In addition to inflammation, excessive mucus production is another hallmark of asthma. Mucus is a sticky substance that is normally produced by the airways to trap foreign particles and protect the lungs. However, in asthma, the mucus glands produce too much mucus, leading to blockage of the airways and further exacerbation of symptoms.

Airway hyperresponsiveness is another key feature of asthma. This refers to the increased sensitivity of the airways to various stimuli, such as allergens, irritants, and exercise. In people with asthma, even mild exposure to these triggers can cause the airways to constrict and become inflamed, leading to asthma symptoms.

Symptoms of Bronchial Asthma

The most common symptoms of bronchial asthma include:

  • Wheezing: A high-pitched whistling sound that is heard when breathing, especially during exhalation.
  • Coughing: A persistent cough, especially at night or in the early morning.
  • Shortness of breath: Difficulty breathing or a feeling of tightness in the chest.
  • Chest tightness: A feeling of pressure or tightness in the chest.
  • Rapid breathing: Increased rate of breathing, especially during episodes of asthma exacerbation.
  • Fatigue: Feeling tired or exhausted due to the effort required to breathe during an asthma episode.
  • Anxiety: Feeling anxious or stressed due to the difficulty breathing and other asthma symptoms.

Asthma symptoms can vary in severity from mild to severe, and can be triggered by various factors such as allergens, irritants, exercise, and respiratory infections. In some cases, asthma symptoms can be life-threatening, and require emergency medical treatment. These severe symptoms include:

  • Extreme difficulty breathing or shortness of breath.
  • Bluish discoloration of the lips or fingernails.
  • Severe wheezing or coughing.
  • Rapid breathing or heart rate.
  • Inability to speak or catch one's breath.
  • Confusion or drowsiness.

Diagnosis of Bronchial Asthma

The diagnosis of bronchial asthma is typically based on a combination of clinical evaluation, medical history, and diagnostic testing.

Medical history: 

A healthcare provider will usually begin by taking a detailed medical history, including information about the patient's symptoms, any family history of asthma or allergies, and any triggers that may be causing the symptoms.

Physical exam: 

A healthcare provider will perform a physical exam to assess lung function and to look for signs of inflammation, such as wheezing, coughing, or a tight chest.

Lung function tests: 

The most commonly used lung function tests to diagnose asthma are spirometry and peak flow testing. Spirometry measures the amount of air a person can exhale forcefully in one second, as well as the total amount of air exhaled over several seconds. Peak flow testing measures the maximum amount of air a person can exhale forcefully in one breath.

Allergy testing: 

Allergy testing may be performed to identify potential allergens that could be triggering asthma symptoms.

Other tests: 

In some cases, other tests such as chest X-ray, blood tests, or sputum analysis may be performed to rule out other potential causes of respiratory symptoms.

Treatment of Bronchial Asthma

The treatment of bronchial asthma typically involves a combination of medications, lifestyle modifications, and avoidance of triggers. The goal of treatment is to control symptoms, prevent exacerbations, and improve quality of life. Here are some common treatments for bronchial asthma:

Inhaled bronchodilators: 

These medications relax the muscles around the airways, making it easier to breathe. Short-acting bronchodilators are used for quick relief of symptoms, while long-acting bronchodilators are used for maintenance therapy.

Inhaled corticosteroids: 

These medications reduce inflammation in the airways, preventing asthma symptoms from occurring. They are used for maintenance therapy and should be taken on a regular basis.

Combination therapy: 

Some inhaled medications combine a bronchodilator and a corticosteroid in one inhaler for convenience and improved adherence to treatment.

Leukotriene modifiers: 

These medications block the action of leukotrienes, which are substances that cause inflammation in the airways.


These medications modify the immune system response and can be used for patients with severe asthma who do not respond to other therapies.

Allergy shots: 

Allergy shots (immunotherapy) may be recommended for patients with allergic asthma to reduce sensitivity to specific allergens.

Lifestyle modifications: 

Quitting smoking, avoiding triggers such as pet dander or pollen, maintaining a healthy weight, and staying physically active can all help improve asthma symptoms.

In addition to these treatments, patients with asthma should have a personalized asthma action plan that outlines what to do in case of an asthma attack or exacerbation. This may include using a rescue inhaler, seeking emergency medical attention, or adjusting medication doses as directed by a healthcare provider. 

Top 10 Homeopathic Remedy for Bronchial Asthma

Arsenicum album: 

Indicated for asthma that is worse at night and after midnight, with difficulty breathing, wheezing, and anxiety.

Natrum sulphuricum: 

Indicated for asthma triggered by dampness or mold, with wheezing, coughing, and difficulty breathing.

Sambucus nigra: 

Indicated for asthma in infants and young children, with sudden onset of symptoms at night, difficulty breathing, and a dry cough.

Antimonium tartaricum: 

Indicated for asthma with a lot of mucus in the chest, coughing, and difficulty breathing.


Indicated for asthma with spasmodic coughing, wheezing, and difficulty breathing.

Carbo vegetabilis: 

Indicated for asthma with difficulty breathing and a feeling of suffocation, with a desire for fresh air.

Nux vomica: 

Indicated for asthma triggered by stress, with a feeling of tightness in the chest, wheezing, and difficulty breathing.

Blatta orientalis: 

Indicated for asthma triggered by dust or pollen, with wheezing, coughing, and difficulty breathing.

Kali carbonicum:

Indicated for asthma with difficulty breathing, wheezing, and coughing, worsened by cold air or exertion.


Indicated for asthma with a dry cough, wheezing, and difficulty breathing, with symptoms worse at night.

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