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Notes on Homoeopathic Pharmacy

Notes On Homoeopathic Pharmacy For Competitive Exam

Pharmacy is the art and science of collecting, combining, preserving, preparing and standardising drugs and medicines. It also includes compounding and dispensing of the medicines. The word ‘Pharmacy’ also implies the place, where the medicines are made and distributed.





Homoeopathic Pharmacy is the art and science of collecting, compounding, combining, preparing, preserving and standardising drugs and medicines according to the Homoeopathic principle; and also dispensing medicines or remedies according to the prescriptions of physicians, which are used in Homoeopathic practice.

Dr. Garth Boericke defines Pharmacy as “The art of preparing drugs for use and dispensing them as medicine.”

Homoeopathic Pharmacy includes:
- Collection
- Identification
- Quality inspection
- Preservation
- Standardization
- Combining
- Compounding
- Preparation
- Quality control
- Dispensing


Branches of homoeopathic pharmacy

1. Galenical Pharmacy :

  • The word “Galen” originates from the Greek word “galenos” a 2nd century greek physician.
  • Galenical pharmacy implies that pharmacy which follows the methods and theories of Galen.
  • This branch of pharmacy is related to crude drugs only.

2. Pharmacy proper :

  • Official pharmacy : It includes drugs and medicines prepared according to the different Official Pharmacopoeias.
  • Extemporaneous pharmacy. It includes preparing and distributing medicines according to the prescriptions of physicians.



Pharmacy can also be divided into two major divisions :

(a) Theoretical Pharmacy: 

It contains of physical and biological assessments as well as the professional courses that need to train up a pharmacist and which
mainly are of theoretical nature.

(b) Practical Pharmacy : 

It contains Various aspects of manufacturing , Retail, Professional and Hospital pharmacy, Practical portion of Physical and Biological
assessments.


Pharmacopoeia

The name Pharmacopoeia originates from the two Greek words: Pharmakon, means a drug ; and poieo, means to make.

Definition: It is a standard book containing a list of drugs and medicines, with information about the sources, habitats, descriptions, collections and identifications of the drugs ; and also provides directions for their preparations ,combining, Compounding and standardisation.

  • Father of Pharmacopoeia – Valerius Cordus (1515 – 1544).
  • Father of Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia – Dr Caspari (Leipzig, Germany, Dispensatory of Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia in 1825).


History of Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia

- 1825: Dr. Caspari (Leipzig, Germany) published Dispensatory of Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia.

- 1870: British Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia by British Homoeopathic Society, London.

- 1872: Schwabe – Pharmacopoeia Homoeopathica Polyglottica.

- 1897 : Otis Clap & Son Inc. Agent, Boston, U.S.A. published Pharmacopoeia of American Institute of Homoeopathy

- 1898 – PharmacopĂ©e Homoeopathique Française

- 1901: 2nd edition of Pharmacopoeia of American Institute of Homoeopathy, but title changed to “Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States”.

- In India, M. Bhattacharya and Co. published ‘Pharmaceutists Manual’ in 1892.

- A revised and enlarged twelfth edition was published in July 1962 as “M. Bhattacharya and Co.’s Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia”. This is not officially recognized by the Government of India.





Homoeopathic pharmacopoeia of India:

- HPI is included in the Second Schedule of Drugs and Cosmetics Act 1940.

- The proposal to set up a Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia Committee was initiated by the Homoeopathic Advisory Committee in the year 1956.

- The Government of India constituted the Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia Committee in September 1962.

- Dr.B.K. Sarkar was the first chairman of Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia Committee.


Various volume of HPI –

▪ Vol – 1 1971 – 180 drugs
▪ Vol – 2 1974 – 100 drugs
▪ Vol – 3 1978 – 105 drugs
▪ Vol – 4 1984 – 107 drugs
▪ Vol – 5 1986 – 114 drugs
▪ Vol – 6 1990 – 104 drugs
▪ Vol – 7 1999 – 105 drugs
▪ Vol – 8 2000 – 101 drugs

- Total number of monographs in HPI – 916

Monographs – The general plan of pharmacopoeias is to lay down the direction for the selection and preparation of drugs that are thoroughly adapted to the purpose of homoeopathic prescribing. These directions and specifications for each drug are called ‘monographs’.




Sources of Homoeopathic Drug :

Vegetable Kingdom (Plant Kingdom)


WHOLE PLANT

• Without roots –
o Alfalfa,
o Lobelia inflata,
o Ocimum sanctum,
o Ranunculus sceleratus

 

• With roots –
o Aconitum napellus,
o Aethusa cynapium,
o Arnica montana,
o Belladonna,
o Chamomilla,
o Chelidonium majus,
o Conium,
o Drosera,
o Dulcamara,
o Euphrasia,
o Hyoscyamus,
o Hypericum,
o Ledum palustre,
o Pulsatilla,
o Ruta graveolens,
o Spigelia,
o Stramonium

 

ROOTS

• Fresh :

o Arum triphyllum,

o Bryonia alba


• Dried :

o Ipecacuanha,

o Ratanhia


• Aerial :

o Ficus indica


• Root & rhizome :

o Aletris farinose



STEMS

• Flowering stem:

o Cactus grandiflorus


• Stem with leaves:

o Clematis erecta,

o Sabina


• Rhizome:

o Gelsemium,

o Helleborus,

o Podophyllum,

o Sanguinaria canadensis,

o Veratrum album,

o Veratrum viride


• Corm:
o Colchicum autumnale,
o Crocus sativus

• Bulb:
o Allium cepa,
o Allium sativum


LEAVES

• Dried:
o Coca,
o Eucalyptus,
o Tabacum,
o Gymnema sylvestre

• Fresh:
o Digitalis purpurea,
o Rhus tox,
o Justicia adhatida,
o Kalmia latifolia,
o Ficus religiosa


YOUNG SHOOTS

• Asparagus officinalis,
• Pinus sylvestris


FLOWERS

• Flower bud:
o Prunus spinosaspinosa

 

• Stigma:
o Crocus sativus

• Flowering heads (with leaves):
o Calendula,
o Eupatorium perfoliatum

• Flowering heads (without leaves):
o Cannabis sativa,
o Cina,
o Melilotus alba,
o Solidago


SEEDS

• Fresh :
o Avena sativa,
o Cucurbita pepo,
o Ignatia,
o Syzygium jambolanum

• Dried:
o Cocculus indicus,
o Coffea cruda,
o Nux moschata,
o Nux vomica,
o Sabadilla,
o Staphysagria,
o Carduus marianus.

 

BARK

• Fresh outer bark:
o Abies Canadensis,
o Salix nigra,
o Viburunum opulus

• Dried outer bark:
o Cinchona,
o Mezereum,
o Conduranga

• Inner bark:
o Cinnamomum,
o Fraxinus Americana,
o Prunus virginiana

• Fresh bark of root:
o Baptisia tinctoria,
o Berberis vulgaris,
o Hamamelis

• Dried bark of root:
o Gossypium

• Bark of root and stem:
o Robinia

• Bark of trees:
o Azadhirachta indica,
o Jonosia asoka,
o Terminalia arjuna



FRUITS

• Fresh fruits (berry) –
o Agnus castus,
o Crataegus,
o Sabal serrulata

• Fresh leaves and berries –
o Viscum album

• Dried fruits (Nuts) –
o Aesculus glabra

• Pulp –
o Carica papaya

• Juices :
o Aloe socotrina (Inspissated juice of leaves),
o Opium (gummy juice of poppy),
o Anacardium occidentale (black oily juice of shell).

• Resins:
o Abies nigra,
o Guaicum

• Gum-resins:
o Asafoetida

• Balsams :
o Balsamum peruvianum


VOLATILE OILS:

• Oleum santali,
• Oleum gaultheria

FIXED OILS :

• Oleum crotonis,
• Oleum ricinis


ALKALOIDS :

• Atropine,
• Morphine,
• Nicotinum


GLYCOSIDES :

• Digitalin


CRYPTOGAMIA

• Algae –
o Fucus vesiculosus

• Fungi –
o Agaricus muscarius,
o Bovista,
o Secale cor,
o Ustilago

• Lichen –
o Sticta pulmonaria

• Bryophyta: –
o Polytrichum juniperinum

• Pteriophyta: –
o Lycopodium (Spore)



 

Animal Kingdom

Phylum Porifera

• Calcispongiae – 
    • Badiaga: Fresh water sponge (Skeleton); 
    • Spongia tosta: Common sponge (Skeleton)


Phylum Coelenterata

• Scyphozoa – Medusa: Jelly-fish (Whole living animal)
• Hydrozoa – Physalia: Portuguese man-of-war (Whole living animal) 
• Anthozoa – Corallium rubrum: Red coral (Skeleton)

Phylum Annelida

• Hirudineae – Sanguisuga: Hirudo, the leech (Whole living animal)

Phylum Mollusca

• Gastropoda – Helix tosta: Toasted snail (Whole living animal), Murex purpurea: Purple-fish (Juices)
• Bivalvia – Calcarea calcinata: Calcinated oyster shell (Shell), Pectin: Scallop (Shell)
• Cephalopoda – Sepia: Cuttle fish (Juice)

Phylum Echinodermata

• Asteroidea – Asterias rubens: Star-fish (Whole living animal)


Phylum Arthropoda - Crustacea

• Armadillo officinalis: Sow bug, Sow louse (Whole dried animal)
• Astacus fluviatilis : Crawfish or River crab (Whole living animal)
• Homarus: Lobster (Digestive fluid)
• Limulus cyclops: King crab (Blood)
• Scolopendra: Centipede (Whole living animal)

Phylum Arthropoda - Arachnida

• Aranea diadema: The Cross spider (Whole living animal)
• Latrodectus katipo: Poison spider (Whole living animal)
• Latrodectus mactans: Black widow spider (Whole living animal)
• Mygale lasiodora: Black Cuban spider (Whole living animal)
• Scorpio europus: Scorpion (Whole living animal)
• Tarentula cubensis: Cuban spider (Whole living animal)
• Tarentula hispanica: Spanish spider (Whole living animal)
• Theridion curassavicum: Orange spider (Whole living animal)

Phylum Arthropoda – Insecta

• Apis mellifica: Honeybee (Whole living animal)
• Blatta orientalis: Indian cockroach (Whole dried animal)
•   Cantharis: Spanish fly (Whole dried animal)
• Cimex acanthia: Bedbug (Whole living animal)
• Coccinella: Ladybird beetle (Whole living animal)
• Coccus cacti: Cochineal insect (Whole dried animal)
• Culex musca: Culex mosquito (Whole living animal)
• Formica rufa: The Ant (Whole living animal)

Pisces

• Serum anguillar ichthotoxin: Eel serum (serum)
• Gadus morrhua: Cod (First cervical vertebra)
• Oleum jecoris aselli: Cod-liver oil (Oil)
• Pyrarara: River fish (nosode) (Whole living animal)

Amphibia

• Bufo rana: Toad (poison)

Lizards

• Amphisbaena vermicularis: Snake-like Lizard (Poison)
• Heloderma: Gila monster (Poison)
• Lacerta agilis: Green Lizard (Whole dried animal)

Ophidia (Snake Poison)

• Bothrops lanceolatus: Yellow viper
• Cenchris contortrix: Copperhead snake
• Crotalus horridus: North American Rattlesnake
• Elaps corallinus: Brazilian Coral snake
• Lachesis trigonocephalus: Surukuku
• Naja tripudians: Indian hooded snake
• Toxicophis: Moccasin snake
• Vipera: Common Viper

Aves

• Calcarea ovi testae: Egg-shell (Shell)
• Ovi gallinae pellicula: Fresh membrane of shell of a Hen’s egg (Shell)

Mammalia

• Carbo animalis – made from charred ox hide.
• Castor equi – Rudimentary thumbnail of horse.
• Castroreum – Tincture of secretion found in preputial sacs of beaver.
• Fel tauri – Trituration of ox gall.
• Ingluvin – Gizzard of a fowl.
• Mephatis – Alcoholic dilution of the liquid contained in the anal gland of
Skunk.
• Moschus – trituration of inspissated secretion contained in preputial folliclesof Musk Deer.
• Pulmo vulpis – fresh lung of wolf or fox.

Lacs (Milk & Milk Products)

• Koumyss: Fermentation from ass’s milk
• Lac caninum: Bitch’s milk
• Lac defloratum: Skimmed cow’s milk
• Lac felinum: Cat’s milk
• Lac vaccini floc: Cream
• Lac vaccinum: Cow’s milk
• Lac vaccinum coagulatum: Curds



Mineral Kingdom

Metals

• Argentum met;
• Aurum met;
• Bismuthum;
• Cuprum met;
• Ferrum met;
• Indium;
• Iridium;
• Manganum;
• Niccolum;
• Osmium;
• Palladium;
• Platinum;
• Plumbum met;
• Rhodium;
• Stannum met;
• Tellurium;
• Thallium;
• Titanium.

Inorganic acids

• Acidum boracicum;
• Acidum hydrobromicum;
• Acidum hydrofluoricum;
• Acidum muriaticum;
• Acidum nitricum;
• Acidum nitro muriaticum;
• Acidum phosphoricum;
• Acidum sulphuricum

Inorganic

• Calcarea arsenicum;
• Calcarea bromatum;
• Calcarea carbonicun;
• Calcarea fluorata;
• Calcarea hypophosphorosum;
• Calcarea iodatum;
• Calcarea lactica phosphorica;
• Calcarea muriaticum;
• Calcarea phosphoricum;
• Calcarea picricum;
• Calcarea sulphuratum;
• Hepar sulphuris;
• Lapis albus

Organic

• Aethyl nitrosum;
• Amylenum nitrosum;
• Anilinum; Atropinum;
• Benzenum;
• Camphora;
• Carboneum sulphuratum;
• Chloralum;
• Chloroformum;
• Formalin;
• Glonoinum;
• Glycerinum;
• Indigo;
• Iodoformum;
• Menthol;
• Methylene blue;
• Naphthalinum;
• Paraffinum;
• Petroleum
• Liquida;
• Propylamine;
• Sulphanilamide;
• Sulphonal;
• Thiosinaminum;
• Thymolum;
• Trinitrotoluene;
• Urea;
• Uric acid.
• Adamas;
• Aethiops antimonalis;
• Anthracite;
• Anthrakokali;
• Antipyrinum; 
• Benzoaris;
• Eupionum;
• Fluorspar;
• Graphites;
• Hekla lava;
• Ichthyolum;
• Kaolin;
• Kerosolenum;
• Kreosotum;
• Mica;
• Slag;
• Tetradymite.

Mineral Springs

• Carlsbad: The waters of the Sprudel and Muhlbrunnen springs.
• Levico: An arsenical mineral water of South Tyorol
• Sanicula: A mineral spring water of Ottawa, Ill., U.S.A.
• Skookum Chuck: Skookum Limechen Chuck Lake.
• Vichy: Mineral springs at Vichy, France [Grande-Grille springs}.
• Wiesbaden: The spring at Wiesbaden, in Prussia.



Nosodes

Homoeopathic preparations from pure microbial culture obtained from diseased 
tissue and clinical materials (secretions, discharges, etc.) are known as NOSODES.

CLASSIFICATION OF NOSODES

• N-I – Made from lysates of microorganisms capable of producing bacterial endotoxins. Eg. Typhoidinum
• N-II – Made from microorganisms capable of producing exotoxin Eg. Diptherinum
• N-III – Made from purified toxins.
• N-IV – Made from microorganisms / viruses / clinical materials from diseased subjects eg. Psorinum
o Anthracinum – Anthrax poison, prepared from spleen of sheep or cattle.
o Carcinosinum – Cancerous tissue
o Diphtherinum – Diphtheric membrane
o Medorrhinum Urethral discharge from acute gonorrhoea
o Psorinum – Itch eruption
o Syphilinum – Syphilitic lesion – Primary or Secondary.

Plant Nosodes

• Secale cornutum – Fungus growing upon seed of ergot rye
• Ustilago maydis – Fungus growing on stem of Indian corn
• Nectrianinum – Nosode of cancer of tree (Nectria ditissima)

Other Nosodes

• Ambra Grisea – Morbid secretion from liver of sperm whale. It is extracted from rectum and found floating on sea.
• Boletus Laricis – prepared from dried fungus purging Agaric / Larch Boletus.
• Cholesterinum– prepared from gall stone.
• Calculus renalis – prepared from renal calculus.
• Hippomanes – prepared from a sticky mucoid substance of urinous odour found in the amniotic fluid of the mare.
• Malaria officinalis – Prepared from mire taken during dryness of a malarial marsh.
• Malandrinum – lysate from exudates of horse malandra (grease) – discharge of eczema in the fold of the knee.
• Morbillinum – from exudates of mouth and pharynx of measles of infected patients.
• O.A.N – synovial fluid of articulations especially knee and hip of osteoarthritis patients.
• Pyrogenum – prepared originally from decomposition of meat of beef.
• Usnea barbata – prepared from lichen infecting soft maple.
• Vaccinonum – prepared from the lymph of cow pox.
• Variolinum – lysate obtained from the serosity of smallpox pustule.

Carcinosins

• Epitheliomine – extract of epithelioma.
• Schirrinum – Carcinoma schirrus (Stomach)
• Carcinocin – Hepatica metastat.
• Carcinocin adeno vesica – papillary adenocarcinoma of bladder.
• Carcinosin pulmonale – pulmonary cancer.

Tuberculinums

• Tuberculinum avis – prepared from Mycobacterium tuberculosis aviare.
• Tuberculinum bovinum – prepared from the pus of tuberculosis abscess in animal.
• Tuberculinum Koch – culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
• Bacillinum Burnett – from the sputum of tuberculosis patients containing the bacteria.
• Bacillinum testium prepared from the testicle of tuberculosis patient.

Bowel Nosode

• Morgan (Bach) – Morgan Pure- Morgan Gaertner
• Proteus
• Mutabile
• Bacillus no.7
• Gaertner
• Dysentery-co
• Sycotic-co
• Faecalis


Sarcodes

Sarcodes are preparations from the secretions of healthy organisms, healthy animal tissues and secretions.

• Thyroidinum
• Adrenaline
• Pituitarum posterium
• Cortisone
• Adrenocorticotrophin
• Insulin
• Pepsin
• Orchitinum
• Oophorinum
• Pancreatinum
• Cholesterinum
• Fel tauri
• Vulpis fel
• Colostrum


Imponderabilia

Immaterial ‘dynamic’ energies that are utilized as potentized homoeopathic medicines. (Aphorism 286, 6th edition, Organon of Medicine)

• Natural source
    • Luna – moon’s rays
    • Sol – sun’s rays.
    • Magnetis poli ambo – the magnet
    • Magnetis polus arcticus – North Pole of magnet
    • Magnetis polus australis – South Pole of magnet

• Man-made source
    • X-ray
    • Electricitas – Atmospheric & static
    • Galvanismus – galvanism


Tautopathic or Synthetic Source

Compounds synthesized, that have found a place in allopathic system of medicine, are potentized, proved on healthy provers and administered on the Similia principle. This category of drugs is termed as ‘synthetic’.

• Aspirin
• Chloramphenicol
• Chlorpromazinum
• Corticotrophin
• Histamine hydrochloride
• Mannitol
• Penicillin

















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